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"Unknown objects are operating under intelligent control... It is imperative that we learn where UFOs come from and what their purpose is..."

- Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter, First Director of the CIA, 1960.
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Background Articles

Earth's place in the Universe

The Drake Equation - how many civilisations are out there?


The Evidence

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Frequently Asked Questions

If aliens are visiting Earth, why don't they initiate an open contact?

Why are most aliens witnessed by contactees basically humanoid in appearance?

Why the cover-up?

How could any intelligent races out there travel the vast distances of interstellar space?

Do we have anything to fear regarding alien visitations?


Links

Some of my favourite UFO sites


Recommended reading

Further reading on the subject

The Drake Equation

This is a simple equation created by astronomer Frank Drake in 1961. It can be used to guesstimate the number of advanced civilisations in our galaxy which are sending out radio signals:

N = R* fp ne fl fi fc L

Where,
N = The number of advanced civilizations in the Milky Way Galaxy.


R* = The rate of formation of suitable stars
The rate of formation of stars with a large enough "habitable zone" and long enough lifetime to be suitable for the development of intelligent life.
Estimates from Hubble Space Telescope observations: 20 per year


fp = The fraction of those stars with planets
The fraction of Sun-like stars with planets is currently unknown, but evidence indicates that planetary systems may be common for stars like the Sun. Visit the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia for more information.
Estimated to be half of all star systems (0.5)


ne = The number of "earths" per planetary system
All stars have a habitable zone where a planet would be at the right temperature to allow liquid water to flow, essential for life as we know it.
Assume this to be 1


fl = The fraction of those planets where life develops
Although a planet orbits in the habitable zone of a suitable star, other factors are necessary for life to arise.
Let's assume this to be 0.5


fi = The fraction of life sites where intelligence develops
Intelligence on Earth took billions of years to develop. On other life-bearing planets this may take a different amount of time, if at all.
This is more likely to occurr, given enough time. Let's assume 0.75


fc = The fraction of planets where technology develops
The fraction of planets with intelligent life that develop the ability to broadcast information about their existence deep into space.
We can assume at least 0.5


L = The "Lifetime" of communicating civilizations
The length of time such civilizations release detectable signals into space.
Hmmmmm, let's say 2000 years.


Using the above values, we arrive at a figure of 3,750 advanced civilisations in our Galaxy!

It is statistically incredible that humanity is alone in the universe.